Sepsis — Sepsis is the most common cause of ARDS [43,44,47,48]. It should be considered whenever ARDS develops in a patient who is predisposed to serious infection or in association with a new fever or hypotension. The risk of developing ARDS is particularly high among septic patients especially those with a history of alcoholism [49-51]. This was illustrated in a prospective cohort study that determined the incidence of ARDS in 220 patients with septic shock . The incidence of ARDS among patients who chronically abuse alcohol was 70 percent, compared to 31 percent among patients who did not chronically abuse alcohol. A possible explanation for these findings is that alcoholism may decrease the concentration of glutathione in the epithelial lining fluid, predisposing the lung to oxidative injury [49,52,53]. Alternatively, chronic alcohol abuse may increase the risk of ARDS by enhancing inappropriate leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells .